POLS 494 (05) Issues of Development (Spring 2019)

POLS 494 (05) Issues of Development (Spring 2019)

Professor Robert A. Hooper

Required Texts and Links:

  1. Robert Dayley, Southeast Asia in the New International Era, 7thEdition, Westview Press, 2017.  Available at the USD Bookstore or in paperback on Amazon, or Kindle: https://www.amazon.com/Southeast-Asia-New-International-Era/dp/0813350115/ref=dp_ob_title_bk
  2. Louise Williams and Roland Rich, Losing Control: Freedom of the Press in Asia, Asia Pacific Press, 2001.  Free Download:


  1. Social and Economic Rights Fulfillment Index (SERF)




Week 1 – 5: Introduction to Course and Overview

Traditional Development Theories
1) Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, Invisible Hand of Supply & Demand (1776) https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/knowledge/economics/what-is-invisible-hand/

2) Reyes, Giovanni E., “Four Main Theories of Development”


Modernization Theory Case Study: American Samoa “The Bold Experiment”
3) “Teaching Television in American Samoa: A History,” http://hackeducation.com/2015/06/06/american-samoa-educational-tv

Participant Theories of Development

4) Colom, Annam, “How to … avoid pitfalls in participatory development,” The Guardian, April, 2013. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2013/apr/04/how-to-design-participatory-projects

Participant Development Case Study: Lagos, Nigeria
5) “Lagos, Nigeria, City of Hustle, Builds an Art ‘Eco System,’” New York Times, February 8, 2019.  https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/08/arts/design/lagos-nigeria-art-x-art.html
Imagine you are a newly assigned U.S. Foreign Service Officer at the U.S Embassy in Abuja, Nigeria.  The U.S. Ambassador to Nigeria has asked for a briefing on the success of the art ‘eco system’ in Lagos and what U.S. policies might support it.  Example: celebrated painter Kehinde Wiley flown in by U.S. Consulate.  To familiarize yourself with Nigeria: Country Background, Nigeria, CIA World Fact Book: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html

New ‘Capabilities’ Theories: Amartya Sen and Laura Nussbaum

6) Ilea, Ramona, “Review of Creating Capabilities: The Human Development Approach,” Essays in Philosophy, Volume 13, January 2012. https://commons.pacificu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1422&context=eip

7) O’Hearn, Dennis, “Amartya Sens’s Development as Freedom: 10 Years Later, Policy and Practice.” https://www.developmenteducationreview.com/issue/issue-8/amartya-sens-development-freedom-ten-years-later

8) Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations



Case Study, Capabilities: Malala Yousafzai Advocate for Female Education

9) https://www.biographyonline.net/women/malala.html

10) Case Study: Chibok Girls, Survivors/Education, American University, Nigeria. 


Case Study, Terrorism in Sahel, Africa.  “Timbuktu” a film by Abderrahmane Sissako
11) https://123moviez.me/watch-online/timbuktu U.S. Embassy, Mali https://ml.usembassy.gov/
a) Carnegie Council: Discussion of “Timbuktu”

  1. b) Abderrahmane Sissako: why I dared show hostage-taking jihadis in a new light
  2. c) Timbuktu Review: A Cry from the Heart
  3. d) “Where Terrorism is Rising in Africa and the U.S. is Leaving”
  4. e) “Islamism, Salafism, and Jihadism: A Primer,” Brookings Institution, July 15, 2016.

Case Study Afghanistan: Sarah Cheyes on living in Afghanistan and sleeping with a Kalashnikov.  The Guardian, March 15, 2015.

12) https://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/mar/15/sarah-chayes-thieves-of-state-interview

Case Study: Murder of Journalist Jamal Khashoggi by Order of Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Saltan

13) “Jamal Khashoggi: All you need to know about Saudi journalist’s death,” BBC News, December 11, 2018. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-45812399

14) Gall, Carlotta, “Khashoggi Killing Detailed in New Book,” New York Times, Jan. 17, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/17/world/middleeast/khashoggi-killing-book.html

15) Ignatius, David, “The Khashoggi killing had roots in a cutthroat Saudi family feud,” The Washington Post, November 27, 2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/global-opinions/the-khashoggi-killing-had-roots-in-a-cutthroat-saudi-family-feud/2018/11/27/6d79880c-f17b-11e8-bc79-68604ed88993_story.html?utm_term=.01ebf208fc82

16) Endeavor Returns Money to Saudi Arabia, Protesting Khashoggi Murder

Case Study: Murder of American Journalist Marie Colvin by Syrian Government:

17) Brenner, Marie, “Marie Colvin’s Private War,” Vanity Fair, August 2012. https://www.vanityfair.com/news/politics/2012/08/marie-colvin-private-war

18) Hilsum, Lindsey, “Marie Colvin verdict gives meaning to her death,” The Guardian, February 3, 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/media/2019/feb/03/marie-colvin-murder-verdict–risks-journalists-lindsey-hilsum U.S. District Court finds Assad regime liable for Marie Colvin’s death:



Week 6 – 7 CASE STUDY: Northern Syria and Iraq: Dilemma of the Kurds

1) Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916).  Wright, Robin, “How the Curse of Sykes-Picot Haunts the Middle East,” The New Yorker, April 30, 2016.  https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/how-the-curse-of-sykes-picot-still-haunts-the-middle-east

Sykes-Picot Treaty Explained: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kxEpSqz57Vc

2) “Who are the Kurds?” BBC News, October 31, 2017.  https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29702440

3) Hiltermann, Joost, “The Kurds: Betrayed Again by Washington,” The Atlantic, December 22, 2018. https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2018/12/chaos-washington-kurds-stranded/578941/

4) Paasche, Till F., “Syrian and Iraqi Kurds: Conflict and Cooperation,” Middle East Policy Council, Volume XXII https://www.mepc.org/syrian-and-iraqi-kurds-conflict-and-cooperation

5) Cavusoglu, Mevlut, “America Has Chosen the Wrong Partner,” New York Times, January 28, 2018.   https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/28/opinion/us-turkey-syria-allies.html NOTE: Opinion column by Turkey’s Minister of Foreign Affairs.  Note: political bias/inaccuracy.


6) McCain, John, “We Need a Strategy for the Middle East,” The New York Times, October 24m 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/24/opinion/john-mccain-kurds-iraq.html


7) Detsch, Jack, “Kurdish lobby struggles to slow US pullout from Syria,” Al-Monitor, February 1, 2019. https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2019/02/kurdish-lobby-struggle-slow-us-pullout-syria.html

8) BBC News, 28 March 2018, “Islamic State and the crisis in Iraq and Syria in maps,” https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-27838034

 9) Friedman, Thomas L., “More Schools, Fewer Tanks for the Mideast,” New York Times, January 23, 2019.  https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/22/opinion/iran-afghanistan-foreign-aid.html

WEEK 7 Breaking News: VENEZUELA 

1) Deutsche Welle (International Broadcaster, Germany): “How more than one billion dirty dollars were laundered out of Venezuela ,” Note Links at Bottom of Article:


2) Compare money laundering by Maduro (Venezuela) with the Najib Razak regime in Malaysia:

Helan, Alex, “Malaysia’s $6.5 Billion Scandal Almost Sank its Democracy,” Foreign Policy, June 17, 2018.  https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/06/17/malaysias-6-5-billion-scandal-almost-sank-its-democracy/
3) Stephenson, Alexandra,”Goldman Sachs Made Millions in Malaysia.  Now Malaysia Wants Some Money Back,” New York Times, June 14, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/14/business/1mdb-malaysia-goldan-sachs.html
4) Examine the unfolding crisis in Venezuela in light of the history of this nation in Latin America, and the role played by the US here and in Chile and other nations in the region.

WEEK 8 CASE STUDY: Iraqi Kurdistan

“Fake news” planted by Turkey to influence Kurdish vote.

1) O’Connor, Tom, “Turkey Tries to Scare Voters With Warning About Jews Ahead of Kurdish Referendum,” Newsweek, September 15, 2017.


2) “Independence and the Iraqi Kurds,” Aljazeera, January 23, 2019. https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/aljazeeraworld/2019/01/independence-iraqi-kurds-190122043558455.html

3) Chulov, Martin, “Kurds defeated, displaced and divided after Iraq reclaims oil-rich Kirkuk,” The Guardian, October 21, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/22/kurds-bitter-defeat-iraq-reclaims-kirkuk

4) Hooper, Robert, “Rebuilding Iraqi Media: Lessons from the Muslim World,” Journal of Media Education, Volume 2, Number 2, April 2011.  Iraqi Journalists Confront Terrorism: http://en.calameo.com/read/0000917892f0725515422

5) SCREEN: TV Special on Terrorism, Produced by PUK-TV, Erbil, Iraq, in collaboration with U.S. Department of State Speaker Robert Hooper, Regional Reconstruction Team, Kirkuk, Iraq.

WEEK 9 – 10 CASE STUDY: Bangladesh

1) Bangladesh: U.S. Department of State and CIA World Factbook:

2) Rao, Pratyush, “Bangladesh: Where a Darwinian battle for political survival in underway,” Forbes, December 28, 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/riskmap/2018/12/28/bangladesh-where-a-darwinian-battle-for-political-survival-is-underway/

3) Abrahms, R. and Satar M., Turmoil in a Global Apparel Hub, The New York Times, January 23, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/22/business/bangladesh-protest-apparel-clothing.html

4) Rana-Plaza Factory Collapse: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2013_Savar_building_collapse

5) SCREEN FILMS by Munni Saha, ATN News.  Female slavery and acid attacks on women.  Spencer, Danielle, “When acid attacks become a weapon of patriarchy,” The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jan/11/when-acid-attacks-become-a-weapon-of-patriarchy

3) Fair, C. Christine, “Political Islam and Islamist Terrorism in Bangladesh: What You Need to Know,” Lawfare Foreign Policy Essay, January 28, 2018. https://www.lawfareblog.com/political-islam-and-islamist-terrorism-bangladesh-what-you-need-know

4) Hussain, Maiz, “Anti-Terror Fatwa Endorsed by 100,000 Bangladeshi Islamic Scholars,”

5) Rabindranath Tagore and His India: Winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature (1913).

6) Hooper, Robert, “How Film School Can Address Violent Extremism,” The Georgetown Journal, January 29, 2016.


7) SCREEN: Student Films, International University of Bangladesh and UCSD: Filmmaking to Counter Violent Extremism

Barry, E. and Manik,J.A., “A Turn To Islam in Bangladesh: Changes to Textbooks Alarm the Secularists,” The New York Times, January 23, 2017.

Week 11 Issues in Asia and the Pacific

1) The Avoidable War: Reflections on U.S.-China Relations and the End of Strategic Engagement https://asiasociety.org/sites/default/files/2019-01/The%20Avoidable%20War%20-%20Full%20Report.pdf

2) Horowitz, Jason, “Defying Allies, Italy Signs on to New Silk Road with China,” New York Times, March 23, 2019.  https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/23/world/europe/italy-china-xi-silk-road.html

Human Rights in Asia – China Case Study
3) Mosur, Paul, “Twitter Users in China Face Threats,” New York Times, January 10, 2019.  (Note also: Liu Xiaobo, Nobel Prize Winner) https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/10/business/china-twitter-censorship-online.html

Russia Returns to Police State Tactics of the Soviet Era
4) Sipher, John, “Putin’s Mail Weapon: The Intelligence State,” New York Times:

WEEK 12 SPECIAL GUEST: Claire Russo, Female Engagement Teams in Afghanistan


1) Pottinger, Matt, Hali Jilani, and Claire Russo, “Half-Hearted: Trying to Win Afghanistan without Afghan Women,” Small Wars Journal, 2010.

2) Jones, Ann, “Woman to Woman in Afghanistan,” The Nation, October 27, 2010.
https://www.thenation.com/article/woman-woman-afghanistan/ https://giw2017.sched.com/speaker/ms.clairerussodevelopmentalternativesincorporateddai

2) Hooper, Robert, “ Effective Counterinsurgency Media Strategies for Marine Special Operations Company Alpha (MSOC-A), Farah, Afghanistan,” Strategy paper Major Adam Potter, USMC, 2009.


Discussion Question:
Why has ethno-religious pluralism been so fraught a political issue in Malaysia?

1) Dayley, Southeast Asia in the New International Era, Chapter 10: Malaysia pp. 265-290 and Chapter 11 Singapore, pp. 291-308.

2) Williams & Rich, Malaysia: In the grip of the government (pp. 115-137).

3) U.S. Department of State Background Notes and Country Study (+links)
4) CIA Fact Book: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/my.html


Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir 1981 – 2003:

5) Hooper, R., “An Internet-Driven National Transition,” The Los Angeles Times, Nov. 23, 1998.


6) Hooper, R., “A Dress Turns into a Mattress: Malaysia’s Own Monicagate,” Los Angeles Times, Sunday Opinion Section, February 14, 1999.  International Syndication.


7) Ibraham, Anwar, “Malaysia needs democracy. I’m in prison for that belief – but I won’t change it,” Opinion, The Guardian, December 13, 2016.


Mahathir Mohamed Returns to Power 2017:

8) Jha, Preeti, “Everyday Activists Behind Malaysia’s Democracy Struggle,” The Diplomat, May 29, 2018.  https://thediplomat.com/2018/05/the-everyday-activists-behind-malaysias-democracy-struggle/

9) Helan, Alex, “Malaysia’s $6.5 Billion Scandal Almost Sank its Democracy,” Foreign Policy, June 17, 2018.  https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/06/17/malaysias-6-5-billion-scandal-almost-sank-its-democracy/

10) Stephenson, Alexandra,”Goldman Sachs Made Millions in Malaysia.  Now Malaysia Wants Some Money Back,” New York Times, June 14, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/14/business/1mdb-malaysia-goldan-sachs.html


1) Dayley, Southeast Asia in the New International Era, Chapter 8, pp. 211 – 245.
2) Williams & Rich, Losing Control, “Dancing in the Dark,” pp. 74  – 92.

3) Cribb, R. and Ford, M. (2010). “The Killings of 1965-66,”

4) Simpson, B. (2010). “Accomplices in Atrocity,” http://www.insideindonesia.org/featureeditions/accomplices-in-atrocity

5) Roughneen, S. (2016). “The Islamist Challenge to Jokowi,” Foreign Affairs.

6) “Indonesia’s upcoming elections, explained,” Brookings, March 20, 2019.

7) Badriyanto, Indonesia: Websites blocked over circulating #LetWestPapuaVote, http://www.pmc.aut.ac.nz/pacific-media-watch/indonesia-websites-blocked-over-circulating-letwestpapuavote-petition-9793


1) TEXT: Dayley, Southeast Asia in the New International Era, Laos, pp.161-178.
2) U.S. Department of State, Background Notes – Laos:
Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook:
CIA Operations in Laos: 1955-1974

3) Documentary Film: “Laos Deadly Legacy – The Forgotten Secret War,” UXOs Bombies: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XB9oXpN2Owg

4) Disappearance of Sombath Somphone, Director, Participatory Development Training Center https://www.sombath.org/en/

Lao Government Position:

POST WEEK 15 CASE STUDY: Pacific Island Nations: Fiji, PNG, Samoa, Vanuatu

PACIFIC MEDIA WATCH ONLINE: http://www.pmc.aut.ac.nz/
Offshore blog website founded after 2006 Fiji coup: http://www.coupfourandahalf.com/

1) Robert Hooper, “When the Barking Stopped: Censorship, Self Censorship and Spin in Fiji” http://www.pjreview.info/articles/when-barking-stopped-censorship-self-censorship-and-spin-fiji-840  (Article available as PDF)

2) Hooper, R. (1996), America’s Retreat From the New Pacific, Los Angeles Times, http://articles.latimes.com/1996-12-26/local/me-12609_1_pacific-island

3) Hooper, R. (2000), Consequences of Corporatized Diplomacy, Los Angeles Times, http://articles.latimes.com/2000/jun/11/opinion/op-39764

4) Hooper, R. (1998) Challenges of Sustainable Broadcast Training in Contemporary Pacific, Asia Pacific Media Educator, Issue 5, pp. 4 – 22. http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1244&context=apme  http://ro.uow.edu.au/apme/vol1/iss5/2/

Environments of the Poor in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific (Textbook)
Anna Scott, “Top tips on using the media to aid development,” The Guardian,
Hannah Arendt, “Lying in Politics: Reflections on the Pentagon Papers” (1971).